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THE VARAHA PURANA: 2 Parts (Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series, Vol. 31-32)






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THE VARAHA PURANA: 2 Parts (Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series, Vol. 31-32)

THE VARAHA PURANA: 2 Parts (Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series, Vol. 31-32)

Código del Artículo: IDF028

por Translated and Annotated by: S. Venkitasubramonia Iyer

Hardcover (Edición: 2003)

Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN Part I - 8120803612; Part II - 8120803620

Tamaño: 8.75" X 5.8"
Páginas: 776
1155 gms

Precio: Euro 64.80

Descripción
The Varaha Purana (Vol. I)

Preface

The present Volume contains the Varaha Purana Part I (Chapters 1-136) in English Translation. This is the thirty first volume in the Series on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology.

The project of the series was planned in 1970 by Lala Sundar Lal Jain of Messrs Motilal Banarsidass, with the purpose to universalize knowledge through the most popular international medium, viz. English. Hitherto, the English translations of eight Puranas, namely Siva, Linga, Bhagavata, Garuda, Narada, Kurma, Brahmanda and Agni have been published and released for sale.

In this scheme, the Old Sanskrit Texts of the Puranas as printed by the Venkatesvara Press and published by Khemaraja Sri-krsnadass have been rendered into English. Translation is neither too literal nor too free. Care has been taken to maintain balance between the two extremes. The spirit of the Original Sanskrit text has been preserved in translation without violating the idiom of English language.

The Puranas are classified as Vaisnava, Brahma, or Saiva according to the degree of quality, sattva, rajas or tamas which they possess in prominence. judged by this standard the present Purana belongs to the Visnuite class. Majority of the verses relate to Visnuite rituals, stotras or anecdotes. The Purana eulogizes the ten incarnations of Visnu and proclaims that a devotee attains identity with the lord by reciting and listening to his praise. A number of chapters describe the initiation of devotees to Visnuite order. The Purana prescribes initiation of only for the Brahmanas but also for the Ksatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras.

The Purana records a number of religious vows which a devotee should observe at certain holy places for attaining his desire. Mention may be made in this context of Dvadasi Vrata observed on the twelfth day of the bright fortnight of each month of the year, the ritual being related to the ten incarnations of Visnu, Padmanabha being the eleventh and Dharani (Earth)the twelfth. The Purana contains a number of hymns in praise of Vishnu addressed to his specific forms under particular names such as matsya Varaha and Kurma. There is hymn in prose called Brahmaparamaya stotra which was uttered by the asvins in praise of Visnu.

Though predominantly Visnute in character the Purana talks highly of lord Siva describing his origin exploits the detruction of Daksa’s sacrifice in particular. The purana is emphatic about the identity of Trinity a single entity assuming manifold forms such as Visnu Brahma Siva and others.

Beside the worship of Trinity we find the cult of mother goddesses as the distint feature of this work, these mother are allied to Siva and their origin is traced to the fury of Siva the purpose being the destruction of asuras.

In the miscellany of topics we can include the glory and greatness of holy centers gifts cows’ enumeration of sins and their expiation causes of sufferings in hell and of enjoyment in heaven. Finally this part describes sraddhakalpa (the institution of obsequies rites and rituals).

Introduction

The Varahapurana is an old Purana considered as a major Purana (Mahapurana) in the accounts given in the Puranas them-selves. But although it states in an early chapter the five general characteristics of a Purana (pancalaksana), it itself does not contain all these, a feature which it shares with several other Puranas. It, of course, contains an account of the first two, namely primary creation and secondary creation (sarga and Pratisarga), but contains very little of the others. It is full of religious and theological matters and glorification of the gods, mainly Visnu, and of the holy tirth as and rules for the observance of various vows. Nevertheless, it is an old Purana in its essential parts, though, as in most other works of a like nature, there are many portions added to it from time to time as is evident from the repetitions, inconsistencies and what would normally appear to be irrelevant matter in some contexts. Its date must be early and Wilson’s assigning it to the 12th century A.D., is arbitrary and unjustified, the earlier parts may not be later than both century as pointed out by P. V. Kane and accepted by scholars like R. C. Hazra, who, however, considers some interpolations to be possibly as late as the l5th century. The work is presented here in an English translation, which is neither too literal nor too free, of the text published by the Venkateswar Press, Bombay, with the most essential corrections. It may be noted that although the work is traditionally believed to contain 24,000 slokas, the text available now contains only a little over 10,000 slokas.

The Purana is in the form of a conversation between Varaha, the Boar-incarnation of Lord Visnu, and Dharani, the Earth held up by him in his tusk, as given by Suta, the mythological narrator. The whole discourse is in reply to Earth’s questions to the Lord seeking enlightenment as to the creation, sustenance and destruction of the world and what would constitute righteous conduct and virtuous actions for happiness in life and ultimate liberation from worldly existence.

We may make a rapid survey of the Purana dividing it into convenient sections and noting the most essential things in each.

l. Chs. l-8. This is of a preliminary nature. Earth puts her questions to the Lord who reveals to her his universal form. We find the account of primary creation from Vyoma through the Pradhana and the three gunas, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, to Brahma, the origin of Rudra, Prajapati and Svayambhuvamanu, Rudra’s form constituted of man in one half and woman in the other, the division of the male part into eleven and further development of creation from Svayambhuvamanu. Narada’s narration to Priyavrata, son of Svayambhuvamanu, of his previous life and his meeting goddess Savitri is interposed. The story of king Asvasiras whom the sages Kapila and jaigisavya convince of the omniscience and omnipresence of Visnu and the need to do one’s duty for spiritual knowledge and liberation and the king finally getting dissolved in the Lord, follows. We may note that although the chief emphasis of this Purana is on devotion, here we find the stress on jnana as the ultimate means for mukti.

King Vasu practicing penance and obtaining liberation by reciting the Pundarikaksapéra hymn, sage Raibhya performing penance at Gaya and getting liberation by uttering the Gadadhara stotra, the ghost of a Brahmin unwittingly killed by king Vasu becoming a hunter by name Dharmavyadha merging in the lord by his praise of him, are narrated to illustrate the eflicacy of penance and prayer. The Dharmavyadha, it is stated begot daughter and gave her in marriage to the son of the Brahmin, sage Matanga, but afterwards she was ill-treated by her mother-in-law particularly referring to her father being a meat-eating hunter, and, indignant at this, the Vyadha made Matangaadmit that while he, as a hunter, was killing only one animal aday for food, the sage who prides at his being a vegetarian, isactually destroying numerous potential forms of life contained in the grains he cooks and eats. We may note two things in -this story, one, the free and formal intermarriage between a Brahmin and a lower caste and the other a defense of non-vegetarianism.

2. Chs. 9-17. This continues the account of creation. Lord Narayana creates Uma and the syllable ‘Om’ identified with Siva, out of which latter arise the seven worlds Bhu etc, the sun, the moon, fire, people of the four castes, Yaksas, Raksasas and Devas and day and night. The Vedas hide themselves in water, but the Lord, assuming the form of a huge fish, recovers them from the water when extolled.

Durjaya, son of Supratika, conquers all the worlds including Indra’s, but on the way chances to enter the hermitage of sage Gauramukha who offers him and his army great hospitality with the help of a miraculous gem given by Visnu. Wishing to get possession of the gem for himself but unable to do it, Durjaya enters into a fight but his army is defeated by the army that arises from the gem, and Visnu appears there and kills the king and his men by his disc. Distressed at the death of the son, Supratika extols Visnu as Rama (the delighter) and attains merger in him.

In answer to a further question about Gauramukha by Earth, Varaha narrates a conversation between that sage and Markandeya in the course of which details relating to sraddha (propitiation of manes by libation) are given, such as the kinds of manes, the different ways of performing the ceremony according to means, the nature of those who are fit to be invited for it and of those who are unfit, the occasions for its performance, the number of persons to be invited and the form of the different rituals. Gauramukha utters a hymn of Visnu extolling the ten in carnations as a result of which the Lord appears before him and he becomes merged in him.

Sage Mahatapas tells king Prajapala how worship of Visnu leads to liberation and narrates the story of the different Devatas residing in the body of the cosmic egg, Hiranyagarbha, like Agni, Asvins, Gauri and others each feeling that without itself the body will not function and leaving it one after another, but Ending Hiranyagarbha unaffected being protected by the Supreme Person in his form as the moon (Soma) , praise him seeking his favor and the Lord allots them their positions and names and gives them each a form in the world of gods and a formless state in the beings on earth.

3. Chs. 18-38. Here the circumstances under which the subtle Ksetradevatas (the deities in the body} assumed concrete forms are given in the order Agni, Asvins, Gauri, Vinayaka,Nagas, Skarida, Aditya, Durga, Diks, Kubera, Visnu, Dharma, Rudra, Pitrs and Soma, as also the significance of the different names and the day in each fortnight important for their worship, starting with Prathama for Agni and ending with Amavasya for Pitrs and Paurnami for Soma. Much that is seen in chapter12 is repeated in chapter 33 which is introduced as ‘another account of the first appearance of Rudra’. There are variations in some of the popular stories here. For example, Siva appears before Parvati not as a Brahmacarin but as an old man who creates an illusory shark to catch hold of him and requests Parvati to save him by lifting him up by holding his hand. In the praise of Skanda by the gods, many terms are with reference to what he was yet to accomplish, but this is explained as due to their knowing already what he would do later. Vinayaka was created by Rudra out of his laughter and in his own form, but changed into a being with elephant-face and protruding belly at the passionate look of Uma on him. Visnu is a form of Lord Narayana created by himself for the protection of the world.

Mahatapas gives the names of the fifteen kings born out of the gem of Gauramukha when they would be born in Tretayuga, pointing out to Prajapala that he himself is one of them, Suprabha, reborn. Then, Prajapala praises Visnu as Krsna and merges in him. King Dirghabahu, cursed to become a tiger for his disrespect to Brahmins, gets redemption by accidentally hearing the name of the Lord. This illustrates the efficacy of the Lord’s name even when unintentionally uttered and reminds us of the, more familiar story of Ajamila narrated in the Srimadbhaga-vata. A hunter pleases sage Durvas as by the wonderful hospitality he extends to him as a result of his devotion to his preceptor, and gets renamed as Satyatapas and the Vedas and Sastras dawn upon him, thereby showing that it is devotion not birth, that makes one eligible for spiritual elevation.

4. Chs. 39-50. This is devoted to the details of the Dvadasi-vrata with the variations and the benefits accruing there from, one in each month starting from Margasirsa and ending in Asvayuja, respectively for the ten avataras of Visnu beginning with Matsya, the ninth being Buddha and the last one being Padmanabha, For the month of Karttika the Dvadasivrata is called dharanivrata, since Visnu was worshipped on that day by Earth for raising her from the water.

I V5; Ch:. 51-67. An account is given of various Vratas for attaining various things like health, wealth, progeny, peace, regaining lost possessions etc, and the Pancaratra system of the Vaisnavas is claimed as equal to the Vaidika. The first two chapters in the section, given as Agastyagita is an allegory on liberation and evolution on the basis of Sankhya philosophy and the last chapter is another allegory on day and night, months, sea-sons and year.

6. Chs., 68-73. Illicit sexual association and the atonement therefore are discussed in the first chapter in this section and a wonderful experience of sage Narada in the next. The following three chapters speak of the identity of`Vis1j1u, Siva and Brahma as given by Rudra, and a hymn on Visnu uttered by him occurs in the last.

7. Chs. 74-89. This deals with cosmology with the earth as the central point and the seven islands, jambfi, Saka, Kusa, Kraunca, Salmali, Gomeda and Puskara with their mountains, rivers, valleys, lakes, trees, gods and denizens. Mount Meru and the continent Bharata are given special importance.

8. Chs. 90-98. The subject of this section is the Triple Power, the goddess unifying in herself the energies of Visnu, Brahma and Siva, born at their looks at one another, and this goddess triplicating herself as the white Brahmi, the red Vaisnavi and the black Raudri and performing their respective functions in the universe. We get here the concept of the triple energy of the later Tantric system though not in its details. We also find that, against the popular story, it is Vaisnavi who kills Mahisasura after assuming a fierce form with twenty hands, and not Raudri. Raudri gets the name Camunda for killing Ruru, and not for killing Ganda and Munda.

Then is given an account of a Vrata for Rudra as Kapalin, and the moksa of Satyatapas by his unflinching truth and dharma

9. Chs. 99-113. We get here the glorification of the gift of images of cows with gold and gems, together with special objects like sesamum water, sugarcane juice, sugar candy, honey, milk, curd, butter, salt, cloth, grain etc, each separately and on separate occasions to worthy Brahmins. The deity propitiated by these is not Visnu in all; it is Rudra in some and Parvati in one. The special value of the gift of parturient cow is stated, as also the importance of the Kapila variety.

The last chapter is a hymn on Visnu by Earth praying for lifting her up from sinking in the ocean.

10. Chs. 114-121. This constitutes a series of questions by Earth to Varaha on the nature of ritualistic worship and the merits accruing there from and the reply stating the rules of observance, lists of meritorious and unmeritorious actions, the well known thirty two major offences in worship, the rituals of idol worship and of the quarters during morning, noon and evening. It comprises numerous moral precepts for a virtuous and pious life. Purity, sincerity, piety and generosity are stressed. Marry of the Smrtis are mentioned here and every one is advised to follow whichever suits his faith.

11. Chs. 122-126. The first and last chapters here are in glorification of two tirthas Kokamukha and Kubjamra where I death of even minor creatures on Dvadasi day is declared to be giving them birth as human beings and illustrated by stories. In the intervening chapters the materials for worship and the variations in this matter in the different seasons are given. There is also an account of the maya of Visnu and how everything in the world is carried on by its power.

12. Chs. 127-136. Initiation of the devotee and the expiations for offences form the subject of this section. The initiation• into Bhagavata dharma of the devotees with the variations in the details of the rituals for the four different castes and the objects to be offered are described. The importance of the Guru is stressed, who alone can do the initiation. The role of the rosary in meditation is given, as also the desirability of copper vessels, in worship. The mode of ritualistic worship is further elaborated in the last chapter.

13. Chs. 137-151. The glorification of Tirthas is continued here. We get an account of great tirthas, the various holy spots in them, the merit associated with each, the wonders perceptible in many of them and several stories in illustration of their efficacy. The greatness of Saukara, particularly its Somatirtha, where a jackal became a princess, a vulture a prince and a wagtail an opulent trader, all by mere death there is pointed out. The holy spots in Kokamukha are recounted, followed by those in Badazi- Tirthas like Mandara, Somesvara, Muktiksetra, Triveni in the river Gandaki, and holy places like Salagrarna-ksetra, Ruruksetra, Hariksetra, Goniskramana, Stutasvami, Dvaraka, Sanandura and Lohargala are then described with emphasis on the Dvadasivrata in many of them and connected incidents.

Two intervening chapters are on the value of Lord’s service. The importance of service through music keeping awake on Dvadasi day is highlighted by the story of an outcaste being able to liberate the ghost of a Brahmin by transferring to him a bit of his merit so acquired. The rules relating to women devotees during the menstrual period are also incidentally given.

We are told of` Visnu seeking boon from Siva at Muktiksetra, Siva incurring a curse from Prajapati Aurva for destroying his hermitage and sage Salankayana getting as his son Nandikesvara, a form of Siva. We find two brothers quarrelling over a share turned into an elephant and a crocodile and getting redemption by Visnu’s disc, which reminds us of the more popular story of king Indradyumna and his curse. Lohargala, about which in-formation elsewhere is practically absent, is stated to be situated in a place difficult of access amidst settlements of Mlecchas.

Chd. 152-180. This is the longest section in the Purana and is on the glory of the city of Mathura and the numerous tirthas hi and around it, the various gardens, deities and so on with the wonders in each, the benefits they confer, the days particularly sacred in each etc. Matliura is declared as superior to all other holy spots including Prayaga and Varanasi and the people there to be Visnu himself unstained by the faults they may be having and the sins they may be committing and as deserving of the respect of all and gifts from them, a statement which seems to be indicative of the possible origin of this Purana or, at least, this bulky part of it, in this region. Its association with the deeds of Krsna is naturally highlighted. The efficacy of pleasing the Lord by fast and dance on Ekadasi day is , brought out by the story of a dancing devotee redeeming a Brahmaraksasa narrated in terms identical with the one stated earlier of an outcaste doing a similar deed by the transfer of the merit of his service by song. The significance of social service by planting trees, digging wells, laying gardens and renovating ruins is brought out in the long story of` the merchant Gokarna. The list of offences in worship is repeated with the means of atonement, only to say that for all this, fasting and bathing in Mathura is a good substitute. `We also get the story of a servant multimode to release her manes by sraddha, and also what actions lead to •ghost hood and what protection from it.

15. Chs. 181-286. This deals with the consecration and rules of" worship of idols made of wood, stone, clay, copper, bronze, silver and gold and also about the worship of Salagrarnai stones. Worship of idols is sanctioned for all castes but not ofSalagrama.

16. Chs. 187-192. The details of sraddha constitute the subject of this section. The origin of sraddha, its significance, the place and time of performance, persons eligible as well as those ineligible to be fed in sraddha, the various rituals etc, are all elaborately given. There is emphatic prohibition against a bestard being fed in this ceremony even unknowingly. The nature of madhuparka preparation and its administration are also given` in two chapters.

17. Chs. 193-212. This is a separate section quite unconnected with the rest narrated by Vaisampayana about •the world of Yama as seen by Naciketas who goes there at an angry uttarance of his father Uddalaka, but returns to give a description of it. The Naciketas here is not one whom we are familiar with in the Upanisad discoursing with Yama on the nature of` the soul and ultimately gaining from him atmavidya. According to his account, Yama’s is a splendid world full of` enjoyment for the good souls that go there, but also having numerous fearful hells full of torment for the bad. It contains a hall of justice with the well known lawgivers like Manu, Brhaspati, Apastamba and Angiras as the jury. The supremely virtuous souls bypass Yama but the sinners are never spared and his lieutenant Citra gupta is asked to deal with them as they deserve. In the course of a discussion of Yama with Narada, righteous and unrighteous deeds are enumerated, generosity is praised and the power of` chastity illustrated. It is interesting to note that this section contains an incident of Citra-gupta’s men getting fed up with their duty of executing punishments, their fight with the demons called Mande has who are sent to subdue them by Citragupta and finally a settlement being reached by the intervention of Siva in the form of` a jvara. This has some similarity with the demands of modern workmen, their strike and settlement and reconciliation.

18. Chs. 213-218. This, the last section, deals with the great-ness of Siva as Gokarnesvara, Srngesvara and Sailesvara where his single horn in the form of _ a deer was taken out into three pieces and installed respectively by Indra, Visnu and Brahma. It is noteworthy here that this Purana which is predominantly Vaisnavite in nature concludes with an account of the greatness of Siva.

CONTENTS

Prefacevii
Abbreviationsxiii
Introductionxv

PART I


Chapters
1.Earth's Enquiry about Creation, Benedictory Prayer1
2.Primary Creation3
3.Birth of Narada10
4.Greatness of Narayana12
5.Attainment of Liberation through Duty16
6.Attainment of liberation uttering the Pundarikasapara hymn20
7.Attainment of liberation uttering Gadadhara Hymn23
8.The Life of Dharmavyadha27
9.Description of Fish-Incarnation32
10.The Creation and the Life of Durjaya35
11.Fight between Durjaya and the Gauramukha40
12.Narayana offers a boon to Supratika47
13.Rules for Sraddha49
14.Rules for Sraddha54
15.Sage Gauramukha's liberation after uttering the hymn of Ten Incarnations of Visnu58
16.The Story of Sarama60
17.The Story of Mahatapas62
18.Origin of Fire68
19.Greatness of Fire69
20.Origin of Asvins70
21.Origin of Gauri74
22.Marriage of Gauri80
23.Origin of Vinayaka83
24.Origin of Serpents86
25.Origin of Skanda88
26.Origin of Sun92
27.Origin of Matrgana94
28.Origin of Goddess Durga96
29.Origin of Diks100
30.Origin of Kubera101
31.Origin of Visnu101
32.Origin of Dharma103
33.Origin of Rudra105
34.Origin of Pitrs108
35.Origin of Soma109
36.Former story110
37.Story of Dirghabahu112
38.Story of Satyatapas116
39.Matsyadvadasi Vrata118
40.Kurmadvadasi Vrata123
41.Varahadvadasi Vrata124
42.Narasimhadvadasi Vrata127
43.Vamanadvadasi Vrata128
44.Jamadagnyadvadasi Vrata130
45.Ramadvadasi Vrata131
46.Krsnadvadasi Vrata132
47.Buddhadvadasi Vrata133
48.Kalkidvadasi Vrata135
49.Padmanabhadvadasi Vrata137
50.Dharani Vrata140
51.Agastyagita I142
52.Agastyagita II144
53.Story of Pasupala145
54.Vrata for attaining the best husband147
55.Subha Vrata148
56.Dhanya Vrata152
57.Kanti Vrata153
58.Saubhaghya Vrata155
59.Avighna Vrata156
60.Santi Vrata157
61.Kama Vrata158
62.Arogya Vrata159
63.Putraprapti Vrata161
64.Saurya Vrata162
65.Sarvhabhauma Vrata163
66.Naradiya Pancaratra164
67.Wonder of Visnu165
68.Yugadharma166
69.Wonder of Narayana168
70.Rudragita I169
71.Rudragita II172
72.Determination of Prakrti and Purusa176
73.Vairajavratta178
74.Cosmology181
75.Jambudvipa and Meru183
76.Cities of Eight Dikpalas188
77.The Meru Mountain189
78.Mandara and other mountains191
79.Valleys of Meru I192
80.Valleys of Meru II194
81.Domains of Devas in the Mountains196
82.Decent of the rivers197
83.Regions and rivers in the mountain Naisadha198
84.Regions on the South and North of Meru199
85.The nine divisions of Bharata201
86.Sakadvipa202
87.Kusadvipa202
88.Krauncadvipa203
89.Salmalidvipa and others204
90.Goddess of Creation205
91.Sarasvati and others208
92.Greatness of Vaisnavi209
93.Discussion of Mahisasura with his ministers211
94.Fight between gods and demons213
95.Death of mahisasura214
96.Exploits of Raudri219
97.Greatness of Rudra223
98.Moksa of Satyatapas226
99.Greatness of Tiladhenu229
100.Greatness of Jaladhenu236
101.Greatness of Rasadhenu237
102.Greatness of Gudadhenu238
103.Greatness of Sarkaradhenu240
104.Greatness of Madhudhenu241
105.Greatness of Ksiradhenu242
106.Greatness of Dadhidhenu244
107.Greatness of Navanitadhenu244
108.Greatness of lavanadhenu245
109.Greatness of Karpasadhenu247
110.Greatness of Dhanyadhenu248
111.Greatness of Kapiladhenu249
112.Greatness of Cow at Childbirth, list of Puranas250
113.Hymn on the Lord255
114.Varaha incarnation - Questions of Earth260
115.Origin of different dharmas (Karmas of different castes)264
116.Happiness and Unhappiness267
117.Thirtytwo offences270
118.Rituals in idol worship273
119.Food forbidden in worship276
120.Worship of Sandhya278
121.Absence of birth279
122.Greatness of Kokamukha - story of the Fish and Cricket281
123.Greatness of flowers, sandalpaste etc.288
124.Worship in the Seasons291
125.Mayacakra295
126.Greatness of Kubjamraka - story of the Serpent and Ichneumon306
127.Initiation of the Brahmin319
128.Initiation of other Castes - Ganantika, Comb, Collyrium and Mirron323
129.Further Rituals in worship329
130.Expiation for eating the king's food333
131.Expiation for not cleaning the teeth335
132.Expiation for touching Dead body336
133.Expiation for passing flatus and answering calls of Nature in the midst of worship339
134.Other offences during worship340
135.Expiation for eating goose etc.344
136.Rules of expiation347
PART II
Prefacevii
Abbreviationsxiii
Chapters
137.The Vulture and the Jackal355
138.The Story of the Wag-tail369
139.Greatness of Saukara375
140.Greatness of holy spots in Kokamukha382
141.Greatness of Badarikasrama387
142.Action in Privacy391
143.Greatness of Mandara395
144.Greatness of somesvara, Muktiksetra, Trivnei and others398
145.Greatness of Salagramaksetra409
146.Greatness of Ruruksetra and Hrsikesa416
147.Greatness of Goniskramana421
148.Greatness of Stutasvami425
149.Greatness of Dvaraka430
150.Greatness of Sanandura435
151.Greatness of Lohargala439
152.Glory of Mathura Tirtha444
153.Greatness of Mathura Tirtha448
154.Power of the Tirthas in Yamuna451
155.Power of Akruratirtha453
156.The Appearance of Mathura458
157.Malayarjuna and other Tirthas459
158.The Power of Mathura-Tirtha462
159.Circumambulation in Mathura465
160.The Order of Visits in the Tirthas of Mathura466
161.The greatness of Devavana472
162.The greatness of Cakratirtha473
163.The Greatness of Kapilavaraha477
164.The Greatness of Annakuta481
165.The Power of Catuhsamudrika well484
166.The power of Asikunda488
167.The Power of Visranti tirtha490
168.The Tirthas in Mathura492
169.The Semicircular spot in Mathura494
170.The story of Gokarna496
171.The story of Gokarna (continued)502
172.The story of Gokarna (continued)506
173.The story of Gokarna (continued)510
174.The greatness of confluence of Yamuna511
175.The prowess of Krsnaganga and Kalinjara518
176.The prowess of Krsnaganga and Kalinjara520
177.Consecration of Surya by Samba526
178.Satrughna-Lavana530
179.Expiations for Offences531
180.Greatness of Dhruva tirtha in Mathura533
181.Consecration of wooden Images542
182.Consecration of stone Images544
183.Consecration of clay images547
184.Consecration of copper Images549
185.Consecration of bronze Images551
186.Consecration of silver and golden Images553
187.The Origin of Sraddha557
188.Rituals of Sraddha565
189.Qualities of the Brahmin to be fed in Sraddha572
190.Other details about Sraddha577
191.Madhuparka586
192.Peace for all587
193.Departure of Naciketas590
194.Return of Naciketas593
195.Sinners in Yamaloka595
196.City of Yama598
197.Yama and his associates600
198.Torments in Hell603
199.Torments in Hell (Contd)608
200.Torments in Hell (Contd)610
201.Fight between Raksasas and Yama's men615
202.Punishment according to deeds618
203.Sins and Punishment623
204.Instructions to Messengers627
205.Good and bad results628
206.Results of good actions630
207.Good results633
208.Story of the chaste women637
209.Greatness of the chaste women642
210.Means to destroy sin644
211.Means to destroy sin (contd.)648
212.The Awakening654
213.Greatness of Gokarnesvara656
214.Boons to Nandikesvara661
215.Greatness of Sailesvara666
216.Greatness of Srngesvara672
217.Benefits of Recitation675
218.Contents of the Purana676
Glossary680
Index729
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