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A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part Two






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A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part Two

A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy - Part Two


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Especificaciones
Código del Artículo: IDE528

por Hajime Nakamura

Hardcover (Edición: 2004)

Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN 8120819632

Tamaño: 8.8" X 6.0"
Páginas: 863

Precio: Euro 45.74

Descripción
From the Jacket:

The history of the Vedanta school is well known since the time of Sankara but its prehistory before Sankara is quite obscure. However, there is a period of a thousand years between the compilation of the major Upanisads to Sankara without loss of the tradition of the Upanisads; there appeared many philosophers and dogmaticians, although their thoughts are not clearly known.

In A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy, the author made clear the details of the pre-Sankara Vedanta philosophy, utilizing not only Sanskrit materials, but also Pali, Prakrit as well as Tibetan and Chinese sources. In this respect, this epoch-making work was awarded the Imperial Prize by the Japan Academy.

Nearly 60 years have already passed since its publication in Japanese. Meanwhile, new research has been reported in such fields as Bhartrhari and the like. Nevertheless, none can take the place of the author's achievement in the field of pre-Sankara Vedanta.

This Part Two is a complete English translation of Vols. III and IV of the Japanese version, with many additions and revisions done by the author himself.

Part One and Two will be important literature indispensable not only to those, who are specialists in the study of Vedanta but also to those engaged in the study of Indian thought in general.

About the Author:

Professor Hajime Nakamura, D.Litt. (University of Tokyo), Honorary D.Litt. (Government of India and Nehru University), was a distinguished scholar of international repute. He was a member of the Japan Academy and was decorated with the highest Japanese awards such as the medal of Culture and the First Order of the Sacred Treasure. Conferred further honorary degrees of Vidyavacaspati by the President of the Republic of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, the honorary doctorate by the University of Delhi, Kuppu-Swami Research Institute, Chennai, he was also Visiting Professor at Harvard and Stanford universities. Founder-Director of the Eastern Institute and President of the Eastern Academy, Prof. Nakamura was a versatile and striking genius. He undertook research that was novel, original, and pioneering, and the number of his publications is astonishingly large. It is, however, regrettable that his works are mostly in Japanese.

Among his many scholastic achievements, the first to be mentioned is A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy, here translated into English. Other important works are: The Selected Works of Hajime Nakamura in 40 volumes; The Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples; A Grand Dictionary of Buddhist Terms, in 3 volumes; The Illustrated Dictionary of Buddhist Terms, Parallel Developments, A Comparative History of Ideas; The Structure of Logic, in two volumes, and many others.

CONTENTS







Prefacei
Abbreviations and Selected Referencesv
Part V Thinkers Subsequent to the Brahma-sutra
Chapter IGeneral Remarks3
Chapter IITibetan Citations of Bhartrhari's Verses and the Problem of His Dates9
Chapter IIIUpavarsa29

Section IIntroduction29

Section IIThe Man, His Works and His Dates31


Sub-Section IUpavarsa's Status as an Authority31


Sub-Section IIHis Works32


Sub-Section IIIHis Life and His Dates36

Section IIIHis Thought37

AppendixUpavarsa's Doctrine of the Foundation of Letter-Sounds as Seen in the Yogasutravivarana Attributed to Sankara46


IIntroduction46


IIUpavarsa as Cited in the Yogasutravivarana47


IIISignificance in the History of Thought56
Chapter IVBodhayana61

Section IFragments61

Section IIThe Man, His Works and His Dates76

Section IIIHis Thought82
Chapter VTanka (Brahmanandin)87

Section IFragments87

Section IIThe Man, His Works and His Dates99

Section IIIHis Thought100
Chapter VIDravida104

Section IFragments104

Section IIThe Man, His Works and His Dates115

Section IIIHis Thought120
Chapter VIIBhartrprapanca128

Section IFragments128

Section IIThe Man, His Works and His Dates130

Section IIIHis Thought133


Sub-Section 1His Theory of Knowledge135


Sub-Section 2Brahman and Its Evolution136


Sub-Section 3Religious Practice149
Chapter VIIISabarasvamin153

Section IThe Man, His Works and His Dates153

Section IIThought: Sabarasvamin's Atman Theory155


Sub-Section 1Introduction155


Sub-Section 2Characteristics of Sabarasvamin's Atman Theory156
Chapter IXBhartrmitra170
Chapter XSrivatsankamisra174
Chapter XISundarapandya176
Chapter XIIBrahmandatta181
Chapter XIIIGovinda185
Chapter XIVMandanamisra188
Chapter XVFragmentary Transmissions of Various Differing Theories191

Section IDifferent Theories Concerning Atman191

Section IIHeretical Theories Concerning Emancipation193

Section IIIHeretical Exegeses of the Brahma-sutra194

Section IVCommentators on the Chandogya-Upanisad and the Brhadaranyaka-Upanisad195

Section VPre-Sankara Commentators on the Bhagavad-Gita - Pisaca, Rantideva, Gupta, et al.198

Section VIJnananidhi204

Section VIIForerunners of the Advaita Theories205
Part VI The Mandukya-Karika
Introduction211
Chapter IInterpretations of Some Words and Phrases of the Mandukya-Upanisad and Karika214

Section ISome Notes on the Verse VII of the Mandukya-Upanisad215

Section IISome Notes on the Mandukya-Karika219


Sub-Section 1Agama219


Sub-Section 2Vaitathya (Illusoriness)221


Sub-Section 3Advaita230


Sub-Section 4Alatasanti236

AppendixInterpretations of Some Technical Terms that Occur Often in the Mandukya-Karika253


IBuddha, sambuddha253


IIdharma254


IIIparamartha255


IVThe Simile of Alatacakra256
Chapter IITextual Analysis257

Section IVarious Names of the Mandukya-karika257

Section IICommentaries on the Mandukya-Upanisad and the Karika259

Section IIIChanges in the Authoritativeness of the Mandukya-Upanisad and the Karika267


Sub-Section 1The Mandukya-Upanisad and the Karika as Viewed in Early Advaita268


Sub-Section 2The Later Status of the Mandukya-Upanisad in India272


Sub-Section 3Changes in the Evaluation of the Mandukya-Karika274



1Schools other than the Advaita come to take the first chapter of the Mandukya-Karika as a sruti274



2The later Advaita school also concurs that the first chapter of the Mandukya-Karika is a sruti276



3All four chapters of the Mandukya-Karika come to be regarded as Upanisads278



4Conclusion280

Section IVThe Compilation of the Mandukhya-Upanisad and the Mandukya-Karika283


Sub-Section 1The Compilation of the Mandukya-Upanisad283


Sub-Section 2Examination of the Characteristics of the Chapters of the Mandukya-Karika287



1Examination of the First Chapter287



2Examination of the Second Chapter292



3Examination of the Third Chapter296



4Examination of the Fourth Chapter297



5Conclusions302


Sub-Section 3Gaudapada and the Compilation of the Mandukya-Karika307
Chapter IIIThought314

Section IThe Standpoint to the Karika314

Section IIThe Absolute and the Phenomenal World317


Sub-Section 1The Four State (padas) of Brahman317



AThe Theory Presented in the Mandukya-Upanisad317



BThe Theory in the First Chapter of the Karikas323


Sub-Section 2The Doctrine of Maya328



AThe Theory Presented in the Second Chapter of the Karikas328



BThe Theory Presented in the Third Chapter of the Karikas332


Sub-Section 3The Vijnanavada Theory as Presented in the Fourth Chapter of the Mandukya-Karika340

Section IIIPractice359


Sub-Section 1Meditation on OM (The Theory Presented in the Mandukya-Upanisad and the First Chapter of the Karikas)359


Sub-Section 2The Life of Ascetic Wandering Dedicated to Meditation on Atman (The Theory Presented in the Second Chapter of the Karikas)362


Sub-Section 3Asparsayoga (The Theory Presented in the Third Chapter of the Karikas)365


Sub-Section 4The Practice of Consciousness-Only (The Theory Presented in the Fourth Chapter of the Karikas)369

Section IVOpposition and Reconciliation of World-Views373


Sub-Section 1The Unified Standpoint373


Sub-Section 2The Raison d'Etre of Heretical Theories374


Sub-Section 3The Avivada (Non-Disputation) Theory377


Sub-Section 4Synthesis and Reconciliation of Differing Theories in the Scriptures382
Part VII The Vedanta Philosophy of the Grammarian Bhartrhari
Introduction393
Chapter IThe Grammarian Bhartrhari: The Man and His Works412

Section IHis Works412

Section IIThe Man426
Chapter IIThe Position of Bhartrhari in the History of Thought430

Section IThe Tradition of Grammar and Its Revival by Bhartrhari430


Sub-Section 1Introduction430


Sub-Section 2Bhartrhari's Account of the Tradition of Grammar432


Sub-Section 3The Conditions of the Study of Grammar up until Bhartrhari436



IThe Completion of the Samgraha of Vyadi (c.300 BC)436



IIFrom Vyadi to Patanjali (c.300-150 BC)438



IIIThe Composition of the Mahabhasya by Patanjali438



IVThe Rise of Heterodox Grammar and the Decline of Orthodox Grammar (150BC. - 200AD.)440



VThe Revival of the Orthodox Grammar by the Master Candra (Latter Half of the Third Century)442



VIThe Restoration of the Study of Grammar by Vasurata (c.400-450)444




Appendix The Date of Candragomin448


Sub-Section 4The Position of Bhartrhari in the History of the Study of Grammar455

Section IIBhartrhari as Vedantin457

Section IIIBhartrhari and Buddhism460


Sub-Section 1The Legend that Bhartrhari was a Follower of Buddhism460


Sub-Section 2Bhartrhari as Seen by the Buddhists462


Sub-Section 3"Examination of Brahman as Words" (Sabda-brahma-pariksa) in the Tattvasamgraha464


Sub-Section 4Bhartrhari's Criticism of the Buddhist Theory481


Sub-Section 5Buddhist Influence upon the Vakyapadiya489


Sub-Section 6Conclusion500
Chapter IIIBhartrhari the Scholar503

Section IBhartrhari's Theory Concerning the Sacred Books503

Section IIThe Significance of Bhartrhari's Scholarship as a Grammarian507

Section IIIBhartrhari's Theory on Knowledge513

AppendixWestern Parallels529
Chapter IVMetaphysics531

Section IAbsolute Brahman531


Sub-Section 1Brahman in the True Sense531


Sub-Section 2The Argumentation to Prove the Unlimitedness of Brahman534



IThe Negation of Indentity-Difference, Being-Non-Being535



IIThe Negation of Change539



IIIComparison with the Traditional Definitions of Brahman542


Sub-Section 3Brahman as the Basis of Differentiated Aspects545

Section IIWords548


Sub-Section 1The Pre-History of the Metaphysics of Language549



IWords as the Highest Principle in the Vedas549



IIThe Concept of sabdabrahman in Later Upanisads and Epics552



IIIThe Theory of World Evolution from Word in Orthodox Brahmin Tradition554


Sub-Section 2Bhartrhari's Theory of Words556



IThe Relationship between Words and Meaning556



IIThee Essence of Generality567

Section IIISphota577


Sub-Section 1The Origin of the Concept of Sphota577



IFormation of the Concept of Sphota578



IIViews on the Exxence of the Word before Bhartrhari585


Sub-Section 2The Meaning of Sphota589


Sub-Section 3Sentence and Sphota602

Section IVEvolution of the World611


Sub-Section 1The Potential of World Evolution611


Sub-Section 2Material Cause of World Evolution614


Sub-Section 3Change in the Phenomenal World618


Sub-Section 4The Cause of the World and Its Relation to the Phenomenal World625


Sub-Section 5The Problem of Contradiction630

Section VThe Individual Self632


Sub-Section 1Atman632


Sub-Section 2Human Activities637

Section VIPractice648


Sub-Section 1Esteem of the Regulations in the Sacred Texts648


Sub-Section 2The Correct Use of Language649


Sub-Section 3Liberation656

Section VIIConfrontation and Reconciliation in Views of the World660
Part VIII Conclusion
Chapter IThe Position of Sankara in the History of Vedanta Philosophy671
Chapter IIA Summary of the History of Early Vedanta Philosophy685
Appendices

ASupplement to A Hisoty of Early Vedanta Philosophy, Part One697


IThe Part of "The Vedanta Chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamakahr-daya"697


IIThe Part of "The Vedanta as Presented by Bhavya in Madhyamakahrdaya and Tarkajvala"712


III"upasana"715


IVOther717

BSome New Light on Sankara722


I

Conflict between Traditionalism and Rationalism: A Problem with Sankara722



1The Significance of the Vedic Scriptures722



2Traditionalism and Rationalism724



3The Standard of Knowledge728


II

Meditation in Sankara734



1Meditation and Yoga734



2Special Charcter of Meditation736



3Teaching737



4The Varieties of Meditation738



5Meditation is Action742



6The Reward of Teachings744



7Practice of Meditation749



8Identity and Differences in Teaching750



9Conclusion754



10Some Remarks in Comparison with Zen Meditation754


IIIThe Practice of Yoga as is Represented in Sankara's Yogasutra-bhasyavivarana756


IVThe View of Yoga in Sankara's Brahma-sutra Commentary and Its Mediaeval Character765


VSankara's Vivarana on the Yogasutra-bhasya768


VIA Review of V.M. Apte (trnsl.): Brahma-sutra Shankara-bhashya776


VIIAn Interview with Sankaracarya of Kancipuram781
Index785
Postscript839

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