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Ganesa (Ganesha) In Medieval Nepal


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Ganesa (Ganesha) In Medieval Nepal

Ganesa (Ganesha) In Medieval Nepal

Código del Artículo: IDI616

por Milan Ratna Shakya

Hardcover (Edición: 2006)

Rupa. & Co.
ISBN 8129109964

Tamaño: 9.1"X 6.1
Páginas: 223 (Color Illus: 13, Black & White FigureS: 59)
Weight of the Book: 500 gms

Precio: Euro 22.87

From the Jacket

Ganesa, the elephant-headed god, is a popular deity all over South Asia. Worshipped as Vighnesvara or Vighnaraja. Ganesa is propitiated before embarking on any venture as he is the remover of obstacles, the regulator of success, and symbolizes auspicious beginnings.

In Ganesa in Medieval Nepal Milan Ratna Shakya explains the different aspects of Ganesa in the Malla age in Nepal, when the deity was known as Inaya, and all religious worship or ceremony began with him as Agra-Pujaka. Adi-Vinayaka or Adou-Vinayaka. The rise of the tantric cult during the medieval period in Nepal synthesized both Hinduism and Buddhism in Kathmandu valley. As a result, Ganesa is initiated and worshipped - with different symbolic objectives - even by Buddhists. Ganesa is also structured with the tantric living divinities of Kumari and Bhairava in Kathmandu valley even since the medieval age.

Ganesa in Medieval Nepal is not only relevant in Nepal, but in all regions where Hinduism is followed. This book is a complete study of the Ganesa cult.

Milan Ratna Shakya was born in 1960 in Kathmandu. He is a Ph. D. an Artist / Lecturer at the Central Department of Nepalese History. Culture and Archaeology. Tribhuvan University. Kirtipur. He is also Member Subject Committee of Fine Arts Campus, Bhotahity. Member Subject / Standing Committee and Visiting Professor at Buddhist Studies Central Department, T. U., Kirtipur and Member of Academic Council at Royal Nepal Academy, Kamaladi, Kathmandu.
He currently resides in Kathmandu with his wife and his two children.


Ganesa is one of the most popular deity, as the harbinger of good-luck in Kathmandu Valley, even as early as the early historic age. He is famed as Ganedyoh or Inay dyoh, a fortiori god to the Newars, the Tibeto-Burmese speaking ethnic populace of medieval Nepal. Ganesa is revered in all facet of socio-cultural life of Newar symbolically as Twahinai, the god of principality. Ganesa as Koina, Buina, Thanina, Chohpoh, Tunkam pwoh, Lohansala including the Ganesa Yantra and Mandala worship by the Purana-Tantra tradition of medieval Nepal represent him conceptually as natural images, which depict him in his explicit symbolic form. This is also reflected in his tantric concept as a living god in human form. This is also reflected in his tantric concept as a living god in human form. In this respect, a Shakya boy is choosen as a living god representing Ganesa. In this guise, according to spiritual belief he is depicted as having a third eye made of gold and silver on his forehead to envisage the concept of supreme Self. Because, this Self is invisible to the common people, for they require the divya-dristi or the eyes of intellect, the third eye of knowledge to realize his true nature. His true appearance is that of a Yogi hence realized in eight fold aspects of Asta-Vinayaka as visualized by the meditative state of mind during his Samadhi, as the calm and composed form of a Yogi in Yoga asana, to realize the experience of transcendental consciousness. This third eye represents the Ajna-cakra, in Tantra-yoga which means that it reveals the mystic vision of Atman. Through which the absolute Truth is manifested. Hence this concept of Yogic Vinayaka is represented as the popular embodiement of manifested and Unmanifested world represented in icons and human form of art in Nepal. Hence, the medieval concept of Mana-vinayaka, Siddhi-Vinayaka, Asta uinayaka, caturbhuja-vinayaka occupies the norms of Astangika yoga or Sadanga-yoga in iconographic art forms as represented in a pair, four, six or eight, ten, twelve to sixteen armed images all around Kathmandu Valley.

This study embarks to elucidate the concept, name and form of Ganesa as the most prominent and widespread deity, he is 'the first worshipped one' evoked before initiating any auspicious ceremonies or any under-takings by followers of both Hinduism and Buddhism.

This study is broadly categorised under the followings heads: Introduction: mentions the research methodology and literature on Ganapati and Ganesa based on Vedic, Puranical, Tantric religions and art and aesthetic tradition.

Origin: the origin, development and the concept of Ganesa. Ganesa in Kathmandu Valley: investigate the cult impression and different concept of Vinayakas historically.

Inai cult practice: this cult is studied through the indigenous forms of Nature, symbolic forms, geometrical emblems, palatable form, auspicious creature, symbolic reflection in other godheads including the human form as a living god in medieval Nepal.

Ganesa in Nepali Sculpture and Paintings: these two chapters are dedicated to the art history of Ganesa in Kathmandu Valley.

Aestheticity of Ganesa: it deals with the artistic union of Bhimsena, Nasahdyoh, and Ganapati trinity in Nepal. Ganapati, is seen as the god of dance, which also is a representation of aesthetics in Medieval Nepal. Its aesthetic concept and iconic forms have been discussed under this chapter and the concluding remarks of this study is placed at the end as the last Chapter.




1Concept of Ganesa1
2Ganesa in Kathmandu Valley22
3Local Tradition27
4Inaya Cult in Medieval Nepal41
5Embodiments of Other Godheads60
6Ganesa in Nepalese Art Form67
7Ganesa in Paintings92
8Aestheticity of Ganesa118
9The Omnipresent Ganesa135

Appendix 1150

Appendix 2152

Appendix 3155

Appendix 4157


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